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Are there loans for pensioners?

Yes, there are many institutions that grant financing to people who receive a pension for retirement, since it is a periodic income that in many cases is enough to pay the installments of the contracted loan. There are several types of loans for pensioners, which we have divided into two large classes:

  • Private loans: loans granted by private companies not supervised by the Bank of Spain. Private equity companies do not usually demand such strict requirements as banking, so we will have more chances of approving our request. The amount that we can obtain with these credits for retirees will depend on the amount of money that we collect monthly and the conditions established by each lender.
  • Personal bank loans: many banks also provide loans for pensioners who receive sufficient income to pay the installments without problems. The price of these products is lower than that of private loans, although to get them we can take several days or even weeks.

Depending on how much money we need and the urgency with which we want to receive it, one type of product or another will suit us. For example, if we want to finance an ambitious project, it will be more important for us to request a loan for retirees from the bank, while if we need money to solve an unforeseen event, it is possible for us to request a loan from a PaydayNOW!  

Locks to get credits for retirees

The main impediment to being able to obtain loans for pensioners is an age since the people who receive a pension for retirement have a risk profile of default for death, illness or disability higher than younger people. Precisely for this reason, banks do not usually grant loans for retirees to applicants who, at the end of the term, have an age that exceeds 75 years. In the case of exceeding this figure, we may ask for an additional guarantee, such as a guarantee.

In addition, to contract a loan for pensioners we must, in most cases, also contract life insurance or payment protection linked to the loan that covers the payment of fees in case of loss of income due to illness, disability or death. As our age is more advanced, this insurance will be more expensive, so the price of the credit will also increase.

The rest of the requirements that we will have to comply with are the same that they would ask us if we were self-employed or self-employed workers. In the first place, they will require us to have a level of income that allows us to pay the monthly installments of the loan for retirees within the term and, secondly, they will demand that we do not have unpaid debts recorded in files of defaulters such as ASNEF, RAI or EXPERIAN. If our data appear in a list of unpaid debts, no bank will grant us financing, although a few private companies will approve our request if our volume of debts is not disproportionate.

Keys to obtain a credit for pensioners at the best price

Precisely because we are retired and we need peace of mind, we do not want the loan we hire to cause us shocks due to unexpected expenses or abusive clauses. If we want to obtain loans for pensioners at a good price and without surprises, we must take into account the following keys:

  • Analyze our reimbursement capacity to know how much money we can ask for and in how much time we should return it.
  • Compare all available offers to find the one that offers the most advantages. With the Comparator of HelpMyCash we can check the conditions of all the loans for marketed pensioners and choose the one that suits us according to our needs and our profile.
  • Read the contract carefully before signing. This will ensure that the content of the clauses matches the conditions previously agreed with the lender.

New low-interest campaign: lend 10,000 euros and pay back only 9,959 euros

Negative Interest Loan: Smava lowers interest rate to minus 5 percent


Alexander Artopé, co-founder and CEO of smava


The loan portal Smava is now reducing the effective annual interest rate on its negative interest loan from minus 0.4 to minus 5 percent. “Thanks to the Smava negative interest loan, consumers are again profiting greatly from the low-interest phase,” explains Alexander Artopé, Managing Director of Smava. “It remains the case: Smava offers the cheapest credit in Germany.” At Smava consumers save by the interest rate of minus 5 percent 76.94 euros, the other provider is less than half.


Rent 1,000 euros, repay 923 euros

Image result for repay euro

lava negative interest loan at minus 5 percent: lend 1,000 euros, repay 923.06

The negative interest rate of minus 5 percent applies to a net loan amount of 1,000 euros and a term of 36 months- learn more. That means: “I borrow 1,000 euros and only have to repay 923.06 euros,” says Artopé. At present, consumers can not borrow money anywhere else in Germany. “Loans can be applied for by employees, workers and civil servants with good credit ratings. The offer is only available once per borrower. There are no additional costs. A residual debt insurance is not offered. The borrowed money can be used freely. Early repayment is possible to free of charge. Who meets the conditions for the loan, gets 76.94 euros from Smava. The number of negative interest loans is unlimited. The interest rate is valid until 15 June 2018. The loan is offered by Smava in cooperation with Fidor Bank.


Marketing with the aim to reduce costs for borrowers

With persistently low interest rates, many consumers believe that lending is currently particularly favorable everywhere. This is unfortunately a costly fallacy. There are big price differences: in the first quarter, the average loan on the internet was on average 33% or 322 euros cheaper than the national average. In sum, the borrowers in Germany could save 612 million euros. This is shown by data from the Bundesbank, Schufa and the credit portal smava. “It is important to us to make consumers aware of the price differences in loans,” says Artopé. “We do marketing with the goal of cutting costs for borrowers. For anyone who has to borrow money should not have to pay too much for interest. “


smava is a pioneer of negative interest loans for consumers

In July 2017, the credit portal smava was the first provider in Germany to offer consumer credit with a negative interest rate. Since January 2018, the smava negative interest loan has been almost continuously on the loan portal’s offer. Since February 2018, first imitators have reacted to the trend and at times have offered a similar product. “With the smava negative interest loan we offer the cheapest credit in Germany permanently,” says Alexander Artopé, CEO of smava.

This important publication last year Vitamin, Mineral

a company specializing in market research, we Spaniards spent about 259 million euros last year on vitamin and dietary supplements that, in fact, no one has yet proven convincingly that they are good-for-nothing. Understand this statement referring to our environment, in a framework of food superabundance and with a general access to food that other less favored countries would like.

Plate of supplements The most curious thing about this data is that according to this company that analyzes consumption in different regions of the world, Spain is one of the countries that has the most margin to “grow” in this sense (it is understood by “growing” to spend even more money) if It compares with the expenditure that is destined in other countries of its same scope to this concept of supplementation. To give you an idea the Americans in the same period of time spent 25 billion dollars. If we put everything in the same units, this means that in Spain we had a per capita expenditure of about € 5.6 / year in these trifles while in the US per capita spending was about € 70 / year. An important difference is that the case of the Americans is too …

But hey, the case that worries me the most is the one that touches me closest, the one in Spain, but also and seeing the differences with other countries, the one that is on top of us. Without going any further, in the opinion of Euromonitor, it is expected that Spaniards spend up to 10 million euros more on these decorative nutrients by 2019.

He said a little above that in reference to multivitamin and multimineral products there is little evidence that they serve any good, but some that can do more harm than good when its use is chronic. I have evidence.

This important publication last year Vitamin, Mineral

Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer (Vitamin, multivitamin and mineral supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer) concludes that:

But there is more; this other publication just two years ago (in summary form) Daily multivitamins to reduce mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer (Daily supplementation to reduce mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer) can not be made clearer:

The current evidence does not support the routine use of multivitamin supplements to reduce mortality, cardiovascular diseases or cancer in the case of people from developed countries.

But in the analysis that is made separately in this last study of some particular aspects, it was also found that although not very strongly the use of certain vitamins increased the risk of total mortality , specifically the use of vitamin E, beta-carotene and high doses of vitamin A … without having found any effect on total mortality in the use of vitamin C and selenium.

Do like this kid: say NO to multivitamins

Do like this kid: say NO to multivitamins

It is clear that everyone needs vitamins , as well as essential minerals and likewise … what-I-know that we need the air to breathe. But in the same way that nobody needs air supplements (under normal conditions, I mean), neither in normal conditions and in our environment need to be supplemented with vitamins or minerals if he did things right . It is also true that the analyzes that have been made of our way of eating years ago have detected some possible shortcomings in specific groups … In these cases, the problem is usually an incorrect feeding pattern and, therefore, the cheapest, most effective solution and I think it’s a pleasure to adapt that food guide to those specific needs. For example, if the problem was loosening a rebellious nut and you have the possibility of using a wrench (or fixed) … do not be big hands and leave aside the pliers for such tasks, use the key, joer! … no matter how cool those new pliers you’ve bought are.

This ends gentlemen and I do not want to dismiss without repeating one of my mantras: no supplement has equal improved improper nutrition, at least with the guarantees offered by eating in a balanced way . The slogan then: more food (not to mention the vitamins they have) and fewer vitamins.

Laboral Kutxa achieves a profit of 76 million in the first semester, 4.3% more than in 2017

Along the same lines, the entity continues to occupy, in the words of its managers, “a very well-known place in terms of solvency” and the capital ratio of maximum quality CET1 (Common Equity Tier 1)

Laboral Kutxa has achieved a consolidated net profit of 76 million euros at the end of the first half of this year, which represents an increase of 4.3% compared to the end of June 2017, according to the data made public this Wednesday the Basque credit cooperative.

In a statement, its leaders have stressed that Laboral Kutxa has continued to “improve results” in a general scenario of “high demand”, since the banking business during the first half of the year has developed “in the same parameters of recent times “, with the interest rates” refugees below zero and exerting a strong pressure on the margins “.

These results, they have indicated, have been achieved thanks to “a notable commercial boost” of its sales network, which has been accompanied by a “weighted risk management” and an “efficient containment” of the expenses.

The sum of all this has allowed the Basque credit cooperative to increase its results by 4.3%, reaching a consolidated net profit of 76 million euros at the end of June, with a return on equity of ROE of 7, 59%

Laboral Kutxa’s income statement continued to be conditioned by “the anomalous and persistent situation” of negative interest rates. As he explained, the fall in the cost of deposits in recent years can not offset the decline in interest on loans, which affects the generation of typical bank income.

The interest margin has added 125 million

The interest margin has added 125 million

,1.9% below the same period of 2017, where “the mortgage portfolio linked to the Euribor is particularly considered”, have pointed from Laboral Kutxa.

The “good” performance of the chapter of commissions, which increased by 6.8%, has allowed to place the basic margin at 175.4 million euros, 0.5% above the figure reached in June 2017.

The gross margin, on the other hand, reached 210.7 million euros, representing a year-on-year decrease of 7%. However, the Basque entity has specified, if a comparison is made in homogeneous terms applying the current accounting rules IFRS9 to account for equity gains, the evolution of the gross margin has been positive, with an increase of 6.3%.

Likewise, the Basque cooperative has highlighted that administrative expenses have been reduced by 1.2% compared to the same period of 2017.

After accounting for 13.5 million euros for provisions, write-downs, impairments and taxes, the consolidated net profit in the first half of 2018 has increased by 4.3% to 75.7 million euros, prior to the appropriation corresponding to Obra Social funds.

Among other data, Laboral Kutxa has remarked that the rate of delinquency has continued to fall to stand at 5%, “very far” from the levels of the average deposit entities, which stood at 6.70% at the close of may.

Along the same lines, the entity continues to occupy, in the words of its managers, “a very well-known place in terms of solvency” and the capital ratio of maximum quality CET1 (Common Equity Tier 1), which “determines the strength” of the financial entities, stands at 17.85%.

In this context, the relationship between deposits and credits on its balance sheet gives Laboral Kutxa “an excellent liquidity situation”, as he highlighted. The LTD (Loans to Deposits) ratio stands at 79.8% and the short-term liquidity ratio LCR (Liquidity Coverage Ratio), which measures the entity’s ability to meet its short-term commitments, sits in 400.7%, when the ratio established as a reference is 100%.


The set of resources managed by Laboral Kutxa has increased 1,368 million in 12 months and reaches 21,676 million euros, representing an increase of 6.7%.

The main growths on the balance sheet have been concentrated in sight accounts, which have increased by 11.3%. As regards the off-balance sheet figures, the evolution of investment funds stands out, with a net increase of 20.7% since June 2017. As explained by the Basque cooperative, the increase has mainly focused on funds investments of the portfolio advisory service.

The growth of activity in the first half of the year has been especially reflected in the granting of credit. In the segment of individuals, the volume of mortgages formalized in the semester has increased by 14.1%. For its part, the formalized balance of consumer loans in the first six months of the year has grown by 4.5% with respect to the same period of the previous year.

In the commercial sector, the volume of loan, lease and loan formalizations granted to companies has grown 11% with respect to the volume registered in June 2017.

As indicated by Laboral Kutxa, the amortization rate continues to exceed the new production and the volume of total loans to customers falls slightly to 13,372 million euros, 0.7% in the year-on-year comparison. This evolution, he pointed out, is a reflection of the process of reducing household debt, where the fall in the stock of debt persists.



In the first half of the year, the insurance business posted a total of 19.8 million euros, which represents an increase of 14.1% compared to 2017, mainly due to the growth in premiums and the control of expenses.

On the other hand, Laboral Kutxa has 380,000 active customers of its online banking. The mobile terminal is the one with the highest growth, above the personal computer, which has been “favored” by the launch of the responsive online banking model, which adapts to any device, he explained.

Specifically, in the comparison of private customers, excluding business customers, the number of users who use the mobile device is almost 20% higher than those who use the computer.

This evolution of the mobile channel is also observed in the hiring of the DISPON loans (pre-granted instantly and without paperwork), in which the number of loans contracted through the mobile already exceeds those of any other channel.

As for the exclusive payment application of Laboral Kutxa, LKPay, which enables two payment solutions, P2P with Bizum and NFC mobile payment, the 70,000 users have already been exceeded.

The Postamail service, which avoids the use of paper postal mail for the flow of communications between the entity and its clientele, already has 500,000 users. On the other hand, the alert service is close to 350,000 users, 47% of them through app notifications.

From Laboral Kutxa, have stressed that, from a qualitative point of view, the most important release until June is Argitu, the new online platform to self-manage personal finances that helps control revenue and expenses or the evolution of savings, among others . Likewise, an online charge for home insurance has been launched.









Salts without sodium (and with little “salt shaker”): for hypertensive?

Image result for salt On many occasions hypertension or increased risk is related to the consumption of a significant amount of sodium in the diet. However, on the role of sodium in hypertension, many controversies about the quantification are related. A priori, it seems that there are people whose hypertension is more “sodium dependent” than in others . In the former, a reduction of this element in the diet could provide a considerable benefit, however, in the others, not so much. There is no lack of data to support this possibility, stating that only a third of hypertensive patients could benefit from a low sodium diet, compared to the remaining two thirds who would not see this hypertension modified by the aforementioned sodium reduction. In fact, current perspectives point more towards a balance between excess sodium and potassium deficit , both together , as a situation of increased risk, rather than the excess of sodium itself .

Be that as it may, most of the most recent consensus concludes that in our current dietary pattern we end up introducing a considerably high amount of sodium in our diet and that without a drastic restriction being necessary, it is advisable to reduce their consumption , as I say, our current habits.

The Problem

Image result for cannot controlMuch of the problem, I already told you in this post , is that to some extent the dietary sources of sodium in our diet are beyond our direct control . This is so due to the (bad) food choices that characterize the current pattern of food consumption , curdled in excess of processed foods that in turn incorporate a high amount of sodium from its ingredients.

However, another of the typical points to control the amount of sodium in the diet is found in the hands of the consumer when he prepares or ingests food , using the salt shaker. For them, not long ago there are a series of “substitutes” or “substitutes” of table salt in which the amount of sodium has been reduced more or less considerable.

The most common presentation consists in replacing part of the sodium chloride (a compound that characterizes 99% of 99% of most typical salts regardless of their name) by potassium chloride … another “salt” that substitutes sodium for potassium. Honey on flakes that would say that … remove sodium and put potassium, the first low and the second goes up. In fact, some studies have shown a decrease in mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases when common table salt was replaced by potassium-enriched salt … was that not? Yes, but no.

It is a “yes” with three nuances to consider

  • On the one hand, potassium chloride does not “room” so much food in the sense that the diner is waiting for it to do so, or at least not as much as sodium chloride (the salt of all life). Thus, most of the preparations sold as “salt substitutesreplace a more or less significant amount of sodium chloride with potassium chloride (or other salts … of calcium, magnesium, etc.). Part of the problem is that these salts do not salt as much as the table salt itself and therefore, for the same amount, for the same gesture (that of shaking the salt shaker on the plate) the result is not the same. Thus, the user tends to throw more of this substitute than from the table salt itself until it obtains a result similar to the palate. A kind of “for this trip did not need panniers.”
  • On the other hand, there is the question of its use in the kitchen, rather than in the table itself, knowing that the use of potassium chloride leaves an important bitter aftertaste when heated … a fact that accompanies most culinary preparations.
  • And finally, it is necessary to take into account each case in particular when it comes to significantly increase potassium in the diet from these types of strategies. There are patients who, due to their particular physiopathology , or because of the type of drugs they use, must pay special attention to the amount of potassium they incorporate with their diet. Thus, being essential to consult with the doctor, when making such decisions, should pay special attention to those with diabetes , those with some type of renal impairment , those who suffer obstruction or difficulty in the urinary flow , as well as users of diuretics (which promote potassium retention) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors .

In summary

Image result for summaryAlthough the use of substitutes for table salt could be useful for certain people, its use should be limited to adequate prior advice by a qualified health professional : always taking into account the patient’s possible circumstances; the possible influence of a pharmacological treatment … and especially not before having managed a change in the dietary patterns in which less processed foods predominate, more “natural” compared to the most processed ones, with a special presence of those of fresh vegetable origin .

If you liked this post, you may be interested in consulting

  • Basic guide to reduce the intake of sodium (salt) and alternatives
  • Most of the salt you drink has been put there by someone other than you
  • More concrete purposes, easier to fulfill purposes
  • Three key elements in processed foods: Sugar, sodium and fat

CyL agrees to talk about debt relief, but for all the CCAA and not only "for those who have spent without having"

Image result for Junta de Castilla y León


The spokesperson of the Junta de Castilla y León, Milagros Marcos, has admitted the possibility that it should be and can talk about the indebtedness of the autonomous communities for the negotiation of the future financing model but has been blunt to warn that The possible removals have to be “for everyone” and not only for the territories that have needed help from the State when they can not access the markets.

“If it is opened and the withdrawal is proposed for the autonomous communities that needed the State’s support because they could not finance themselves, because they had debt problems beyond what others had, it does not seem reasonable to rely more on those who do not has fulfilled and who has spent more without having, than who has not done it “, has sentenced to remember that communities that did not choose the FLA as Castilla y León managed to solve problems to the State.

In this way the spokesperson has spoken to journalists’ questions at the press conference after the Governing Council on the proposal of the leader of the Catalan Socialists, Miquel Iceta, to forgive part of the debt to Catalonia or other communities.

“You have to be serious and stop improvising every day with a question,” Marcos warned for whom the necessary thing at this time is to talk about the whole autonomic financing model without different approaches by each of the communities. In this sense, he has demanded that a negotiation table be opened in which rigorous work is being carried out to seek balance in the financing and sustainability of services in each territory with its different characteristics, as Castilla y León has always claimed.

On the other hand, the spokeswoman of the Board has considered “reasonable” that local financing is negotiated in parallel with the model of regional financing although it has admitted that it is not yet known on what terms since the process has just begun. “We must give agility but also depth and normality to the issue,” Marcos has defended for whom the CPFF should be the one that advances in both directions.

Marcos has also considered “reasonable” that local entities can have their own funds, in reference to the investment of the surplus of the municipalities, but recalled immediately that it is not a matter of the Board. That said, he has advocated seeking a balance between the necessary payment of debt with the activation of the economy and spending.

As for the Basque quota, the spokesperson has once again claimed the same funding weighted per person for Castilla y León as for the Basque Country since all citizens have the same rights to insist on the doubts already raised by the president of the Board, Juan Vicente Herrera, regarding whether or not the differences have increased with respect to the initial imbalance in which it was started to also remember that a reduction of the Tax on Companies in the Basque Country has already been announced.

“It seems that equality is not going when Castilla y León does not have any capacity on this tax”, lamented the spokesperson who has predicted “clear competitive advantages” in Álava, for example, than in any other province of other bordering communities.

Marcos has also moved the “loyalty” of the Board that also understands the difficulties of the Government of the nation to move forward the budgets of 2018 for those who do not have the support of the main opposition party, in reference to the PSOE.

Image result for milagros marcos

Milagros Marcos has ensured that the Junta will “always” defend the interests of Castilla y León “with all the mechanisms” at its disposal without intending to harm the inhabitants of the Basque Country but to defend the Castilian-Leonians.

Finally, the spokeswoman explained that the Junta de Castilla y León still does not know the calculations of the new Basque quota approved in the Congress of Deputies only with the vote against Citizens and Commitments and the abstention of EH-Bildu to request that it be You can meet at the table about the regional financing model within the CPFF.

“That’s where we should see the differences and know the details of the information,” concluded the spokeswoman who does not know if the deputies who voted in favor of the revision of the quota, including representatives of the PP, knew the details of that calculation. “We understand that if they voted in favor they would not be voting against the interests of Castilla y León and they would have their motive in each case,” said the spokesperson, who has refused to speak for any third party.

Clara Ferrando: "We are kidnapped financially by the State"

We are kidnapped financially by the State

Clara Ferrando (València, 1973) knows very well the risks of not having a healthy account. Because the current autonomous finance secretary, has spent many years in private banking managing and studying the sustainability of financial projects. Now, Clara Ferrando, who is a member of Compromís, fights, along with socialist conseller Vicent Soler, to ensure that the Valencian Community abandons its financial asphyxia, conditioned by two factors: a huge debt that makes the credibility necessary to go to the financial markets impossible private, and bad regional financing that makes it difficult to maintain the quality of public services. In this interview, she explains what conditions are necessary to overcome what she calls “financial kidnapping” of the State.

The barons of the PP say that the finance minister, Cristobal Montoro does not want to forgive the debt to the autonomies, and Montoro himself talks about restructuring it without specifying how. How do you perceive this message from the Conselleria?

Our perception is of absolute concern. Our country without an orderly restructuring or without a solution to the public debt that we have historically accumulated, which also contemplates a remission or compensation of part of the debt that has not been generated by an increase in expenditure but by underfunding, will be in a very complicated situation. This restructuring, which could go through different partial solutions, should contemplate a main one that is a forgiveness of that debt generated, precisely, by an unjust and unbalanced financing model with Valencians.

Restructuring, forgiveness, compensation, are terms that are spoken but not specified. What is really needed? What should the formula be?

There are many ways to restructure the debt. One would be to increase the terms to pay that debt. We are clear and assume budgetary stability and obviously that the debt has to be paid with its corresponding interests. But the debt that corresponds to us, which has been caused by political management in the past, well or badly done, because there are also the extra costs, corruption, and so on. But not the one that is caused by underfunding. The restructuring could come to extend terms, increase or return to have periods of cadence or reduction of interest rates, without that supposed a condoning. But that will not be enough for the Valencian Country. Necessarily there would be a fourth or main one that is the cancellation or compensation.

The truth is that we are very concerned about the conceptual definition of alternative mechanisms. These should be from their origin, as their name suggests, alternative. And not a necessity before the fact that resources do not reach you, because they should have arrived naturally in a good system of regional financing. It is then when they force you to commit yourself, to make use of those loans, not because we have spent more than the rest, because we have not done it; simply because you can not cover the needs of coverage of minimum public services and quality, which are also services required by law. It is, in short, a kidnapping, because it is to obtain resources that you do not have through loans with the Ministry of Finance, with their respective interests. What we should receive is just a financing, not a loan, and that does not force us to return with interest. In addition, they make the ball of debt bigger and bigger.

Clear. Any company does not use only one bank, the diversification of credit is fundamental, because it is also a risk diversification, and I know it well because I come from the banking sector. We do not have the option of going to the private sector, because of the debt we have. We can only ask for credit from the State, which is in the end a financial kidnapping. We do not want only the restructuring of the debt, what we want is to be able to return to financial markets and without that financial unsustainability, because now we are unsustainable, we can not go. What the State should do is not to gather their barons to say to say they do not want to forgive the debt, what the State should do is look at the territorial problems and look for a solution. Our debt would translate into a rating so low that for people who had to invest we should pay coupons to more than 8% or more. So we are an autonomous community not second, but third.

Do you think that de facto the Valencian is an autonomy intervened because of the debt

Do you think that de facto the Valencian is an autonomy intervened because of the debt

The truth is that yes, because with a simple closing of the tap we have a serious problem. We ask you each year since we are in the government for an income scheduling, to know when they will arrive; is that we can not plan anything, we ask in a letter from the minister to the minister, to know when the ordinary FLA or the extraordinary FLA will arrive. That is coming to you from May when they want and how they want, and it is a total hijacking of financial autonomy, and thus there can be no political autonomy.

In the Valencian Country does not fit any other restructuring that does not go through a condonation, because the State has to find a solution to our financial unsustainability. Not because it touches us, because it has already been done in other autonomies such as Andalusia or Extremadura; and not only because of underfunding, but because the State is the one that must be the first to seek a solution.


Do you trust that there will be a proposal for a new financing model in 2018?

Do you trust that there will be a proposal for a new financing model in 2018?

We had the hope that in 2017 the commitment launched by President Mariano Rajoy to the conference of presidents would be fulfilled, and it was a pity that there is no institutional loyalty to the need for financial sufficiency. Hope is the last thing that is lost, because otherwise it would be a mockery, an insult to intelligence, and a lack of respect and a word to Valencians.

The PP warns that to change the model needs the support of the PSOE. Do you trust that socialists are sensitive to the Valencian reality?

I trust and I do not doubt that the PSPV totally agrees with us, but of course that is the difference with Compromís, that we must not render accounts to a state party with a presence in Madrid. I have no doubt that the PSPV wants to assert its defense of what this land needs, as President Ximo Puig defends; and I hope that it does not have problems so that it is successful within the PSOE.

Are you worried that in the end with financing a two-speed Spain will be consolidated, with well-financed autonomies such as the Basque Country or Galicia and others such as Valencia?

Until now, I have not seen the will of the representatives of the Government of Spain. We have an expired system, there have been opportunities to open the debate, the words have been broken, and of course I am concerned that there are autonomies at different speeds. Because it also seems that there is no desire to solve it. The solution must be proposed by the Government of Spain and it does not.

“I am concerned about the consolidation of a two-speed Spain, between good and badly financed autonomies.”

In all this debate, what does seem is that the social and political unity is being broken around the demand for better financing.

From the moment that Mrs. Isabel Bonig does not comply with the agreement of the Valencian Courts and that they no longer remember their commitments to ask for the historical debt, it is difficult to achieve union. But Botanic’s government is committed to its goal, and we will not stop explaining the situation to Valencians every day.

If you want to take out a loan, your credit rating or credit rating will be checked first.

Of course, the bank would like to know if you can repay the installments. When applying for credit, you must therefore provide information about your earnings and your employment in the self-assessment. A sufficiently high income and a permanent employment are factors that ensure a good credit rating.

But also important are your expenses. Because when your income is almost completely spent on your living expenses, chances are low that you will be able to raise enough money for your loan installments in the long term.

So the bank carries out a revenue-expenditure account, the result of which determines whether you are granted a loan or not. There are only a few ways to still get the loan if the result is insufficient.

The banks use a flat rate for the calculation because many borrowers can not state their costs accurately or they estimate too low and are later overwhelmed by the credit installments. The lump sums are set individually by each bank and can therefore differ.

Difference: Household allowance and cost of living

Difference: Household allowance and cost of living


The household lump sum is used by banks to determine the financial capacity of an applicant if he / she can not give precise details of income and expenditure. These calculations are made according to individual benchmarks of the respective credit institution.

For the calculation of the lump sum, for example, various aspects can be included. While a bank calculates the car costs into the lump sum, another lender waives it. The household allowance is therefore based on an estimate of your expenditure, which is offset against your actual income.

If the Federal Statistical Office determines the cost of living in the form of a consumer price index every five years, it always applies the same criteria. The following section deals in more detail with the calculation of the cost of living.

Household package vs. Cost of living above the CPI

household allowance Consumer Price Index
  • Individual estimates and calculations of the bank
  • Is regularly adjusted, no transparent methods
  • Used in lending
  • Objective and transparent procedure of the Federal Statistical Office
  • Is charged every five years
  • Regular price determinations
  • Flows into the calculation of the household allowance

Division of the cost of living of the Federal Statistical Office

Division of the cost of living of the Federal Statistical Office

The Federal Statistical Office determines the average cost of living at intervals of five years in the form of the consumer price index (CPI) for Germany. This index indicates the change in prices of goods and services used for private needs.

To determine the (CPI), the Federal Statistical Office compiles a so-called “shopping basket” of more than 750 items, which are distributed to the following areas. The goods correspond to the goods that are bought by Germans the most. For the consumer price index, the prices of these products are continuously charged.

The fall of the Berlin wall

East Berlin , minutes before 7pm, November 9, 1989 . At the end of a press conference called by the SED, the communist party of the German Democratic Republic , the Italian journalist Riccardo Ehrmann asks about the existence of a new law that regulates travel abroad. The Secretary of Information and Propaganda, Günter Schabowski , responds that the Politburo has approved a regulation that allows all citizens who request it to leave the country. Skip a chorus of voices: “When does it come into force? Without a passport? Right now?”. Schabowski scratches his head, alludes to a note distributed shortly before and reads it aloud. The exit visas will be delivered without delay and the prerequisites are canceled (prove the need for the trip or family ties). Journalists insist: “When does it come into force?” The spokesman looks at his papers: “According to the information I have, with immediate effect . ” “Is it also true for West Berlin?” Schabowski frowns and looks back at his papers. After hesitating for a moment, he reads: “The exit can be made through all the border crossings of the GDR with the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin.”

The Iron Curtain that for 28 years has divided Berlin, Germany and Europe into two antagonistic blocks falls symbolically in just a few hours.

The Iron Curtain that for 28 years has divided Berlin, Germany and Europe into two antagonistic blocks falls symbolically in just a few hours.

In a matter of minutes, thousands of East Berliners who have seen the press conference live on television are crowding the border crossings of the wall. The astonished guards, who have not received any order, frantically phone their superiors, but by then the situation is uncontrollable and nobody wants to take responsibility for ordering the use of force. Faced with the impossibility of containing the crowd, the guards give up and after 23:00 let pass, first orderly and then without control, their euphoric fellow citizens. On the other side they are greeted with open arms by West Berliners, who have also flocked to the border after hearing the news. In the midst of joyous scenes, they both go to the wall, climb on it, jump it. The Iron Curtain that for 28 years has divided Berlin, Germany and Europe into two antagonistic blocks falls symbolically in just a few hours.

It has always been believed that what happened that day was an accident caused by the spontaneous intervention of Ehrmann, but the journalist revealed this year that a senior official of the SED is his friend (later identified as Günter Potschke, general director of the state news agency ADN) called him before the press conference asking him to make the famous question. Schabowski denies it, and Potschke passed away three years ago, but, with or without assembly, the truth is that the press conference got out of hand to everyone. It was foreseen that the new regulations would come into force once it was finalized and communicated to the passport offices and the border posts. According to Schabowski, the note given to him by Egon Krenz himself, the new secretary general of the SED and head of state, did not mention a specific date and, nervous and harassed by the journalists, he improvised the fateful “with immediate effect”.

“We wanted to meet the expectations of the people and demonstrate that a new path could be started under the aegis of socialism.”

"We wanted to meet the expectations of the people and demonstrate that a new path could be started under the aegis of socialism."

The errors of Krenz and Schabowski attest to the extent to which the regime was overwhelmed and decomposed at times . Both, along with Siegfried Lorenz, another member of the Politburo, had forced three weeks before the defenestration of Erich Honecker, the leader who for 13 years led the country with an iron fist. The SED, torn, was torn between the hard line and those in favor of undertaking reforms and opening the borders in the face of strong popular pressure.

The bill to change the law of foreign travel took weeks bouncing between the Council of Ministers and the Politburo, blocked by vetoes and counter-vetoes. Schabowski has claimed that the new standard “was the real reason for the break with Honecker and its fall”, as well as the internal corrosion of the regime. On November 7, the entire government resigned, presided over by Willi Stoph, and two thirds of the Politburo, while Krenz reopened the border with Czechoslovakia . Outside, the demonstrations intensified and the exodus of citizens across the neighboring country reached a rate of 200 people per hour. You had to reduce the tension, and fast.

Krenz decided to inform the international press of the changes that the new leadership of the party contemplated in response to the massive protests and complaints of Czechoslovakia. The new travel regulations were only part of a broader package of political and economic reforms that included the promise of free elections as soon as the opposition was legalized, but surprisingly it was the most controversial within the party. And for one word: “permission”. The original text stated that citizens could travel freely after obtaining the corresponding permission from the authorities, but as Schabowski recalled, “we all knew that in the GDR a permit meant that it could be denied” , so he and Krenz rewrote it, this time without the word of marras. “We wanted to meet the expectations of the people and demonstrate that a new path could be started under the aegis of socialism.”

The main task of the new minister was to negotiate with the FRG and the old allied powers the reunification of Germany.

The main task of the new minister was to negotiate with the FRG and the old allied powers the reunification of Germany.

Everything was in vain. After the disaster of the wall, the SED tried to recover a political space and influence the conjuncture that was approaching, but did nothing but self-immolation. On December 3, the Central Committee and the Politburo resigned en bloc , and four days later Krenz did the same, giving way to the refoundation of the SED into the Party of Democratic Socialism and a new government. Then the Round Table of negotiations with representatives of opposition organizations was opened, including the New Forum, the Social Democratic Party and the Democratic Awakening.

The result was the call for free elections on March 18, 1990 . He won the Alliance for Germany, a coalition of the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party led by the conservative Lothar de Maizière. In the following months, the main task of the new prime minister was to negotiate with the FRG and the old allied powers (United States, France, the United Kingdom and the USSR, which had to give their approval) the reunification of Germany , a process that concluded on October 3, 1990.

If the fall of the Berlin Wall dealt the coup de grace to the GDR, its collapse began abroad. The trigger was the decision of Hungary to dismantle the wire fences of its border with Austria on May 2, 1989. Over that hole, more than 13,000 “tourists” of the GDR fled in the summer with the acquiescence of the Hungarian authorities. Honecker responded by prohibiting travel to Hungary. It was then that the false tourists took refuge in the embassies of the FRG in Prague and Warsaw. Bonn automatically granted citizenship to all East Germans entering its territory, embassies included, but in the case of Czechoslovakia and Poland, it could not guarantee exit visas. In the end, Honecker, after extreme restrictions on mobility, allowed the deserters to flee on the condition that they did so through the GDR, on sealed trains and as expelled.

Meanwhile, throughout the country, especially in Dresden and Leipzig, hundreds of people began to go out spontaneously . At first they shouted “We want to leave!”, But on September 4, at the first Monday demonstration in Leipzig, a thousand citizens chanted what would be the two most important slogans of the so-called peaceful revolution: “We stay!” and “We are the people!” Five days later the New Forum was born, the movement that would lead the opposition to the regime and the popular protests. It would be followed by Democracy Now, Democratic Awakening, the SDP (the country’s first independent political party, social democrat) and many other organizations.

Honecker boasted that the Berlin Wall would remain standing for another 50 or 100 years.

Honecker boasted that the Berlin Wall would remain standing for another 50 or 100 years.

The demonstration on Monday, October 9 in Leipzig gathered some 70,000 people. Some leaders of the SED demanded the adoption of a “Chinese solution”, in reference to the events of Tiananmen Square in June of that year, when Beijing crushed a popular rebellion with tanks. The authorities bet 6,000 riot police and soldiers in Leipzig, ready to make mass arrests and use force, but international pressure ensured that the demonstration took place without incident. The corset with which Honecker had kept the country at bay was shattering beyond repair .

Among the leaders of the Eastern Bloc, the leader of the SED was the one who most strongly opposed the political and economic reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev in the USSR, the famous glasnost and perestroika. In January, just one month after Gorbachev announced at the UN Assembly a significant reduction of Soviet troops in Eastern Europe, Honecker boasted that the Berlin Wall would remain standing for another 50 or 100 years.

In fact, Gorbachev’s warning, which made it clear that the USSR would not intervene militarily in support of their ward (as it had done in 1953 in the GDR, in 1956 in Hungary and in 1968 in Czechoslovakia), was aimed at Poland and Hungary. The strikes of the Solidarity union in protest at the uncontrolled increase in prices, as well as the massive civic demonstrations of the Hungarians on internal issues, had put the governments of the two countries on the ropes.

The official speech of the USSR sentenced the political death of Honecker. Isolated internationally and questioned within the SED, he resigned.

Gorbachev, like the one he had started at home, wanted to proceed with a controlled blast of the stagnant regimes of his satellites. Aware that the communist base was minimal in Poland and Hungary, he decided to start there. His tactics could not be more successful. Both General Jaruzelski and Károly Grósz allowed political pluralism and called for elections in the spring of 1989. Gorbachev’s message could now be heard throughout Communist Europe: mobilizations and political organization were not only possible, they were successful.

Then came the Hungarian border breach and, in a more humiliating way for Honecker, the disavowal he received from Gorbachev in person during the 40th anniversary of the founding of the GDR, on October 7: “We must hurry to recognize the needs and the wishes of the people. ” The official speech of the USSR, with “history will punish those who arrive late,” sentenced the political death of Honecker. Isolated internationally and questioned within the SED, he resigned on October 18 after Krenz’s coup.

Unwittingly, Schabowski recently glimpsed the pathos that reached the party apparatus in those days: “Only by removing Honecker could we save ourselves.” On October 23, the Monday demonstration in Leipzig gathered 320,000 people. On November 4, 500,000 East Berliners clamored for freedom of expression and movement and democratic elections while a new wave of citizens escaped through Czechoslovakia. All this tolerated by an impotent Krenz. The fate of the regime, surpassed by events, was cast .

But what about the population of the GDR? How is it explained that his reaction was so late and that there was hardly opposition for so many years? According to the official story in Germany, the adhesion of citizens to the SED was always possible. The regime dominated the economy and controlled society through the Stasi, the secret police, the omnipresence of the SED and censorship, so that the vast majority was made to the system. This was helped by a few cheap commodities thanks to official subsidies, the great international successes in the sporting field and the fact that the country reached in a very short time the highest level of production and standard of living in the entire Eastern Bloc. .

Honecker’s paranoid zeal, with its shielding of the country restricting travel and any hint of individual freedom, led many to flee the GDR.


Despite the propaganda, the population gradually admitted that the goal of overcoming the West was a chimera. In the eighties, the depletion of resources, the loss of productivity and the general crisis of the communist countries, its main trading partners, led the RDA to borrow more and more abroad (strategically, the Chancellor of the FRG, Helmut Kohl quickly offered to lend him money, which he would use as an instrument of political pressure). The consequent improvisation in the supply of consumer goods and their increase in cost, added to Honecker’s stubborn refusal to adopt the reforms that Gorbachev had undertaken in the USSR, increased the frustration. Honecker’s paranoid zeal, with its shielding of the country restricting travel and any hint of individual freedom, was what drove many, convinced of the impossibility of a change, to flee from the GDR.

But this account of the inevitable decline of a repressive system, defeated by the evidence of its failure and the majority desire of the population to embrace democracy and the market economy – in short, the Western way of life – usually obviates the reality It was much more complex. On the one hand, external factors were decisively influenced: the “Gorbachev effect” , but also Kohl’s secret negotiations with the USSR and Hungary. Gorbachev demanded 12,000 million marks for the withdrawal of his troops from the GDR (he received a payment of 8,000 million plus another 4,000 million in credits) and the Hungarian government accepted a loan of 1,000 million in exchange for the opening of the border with Austria. On the other, neither the opposition of the society was total-hundreds of thousands of people supported the peaceful Revolution, but the GDR had then 16 million inhabitants-nor those who longed for freedom and economic reforms necessarily commune with the capitalist order.